## Syllabus - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

## SEMESTER: THIRD

SEMESTER PATTERN (CREDIT GRADE SYSTEM)

#### SECTION-A

**UNIT-I: **Ordinary differential equations:- Completer solution, Operator D,Rules for finding complementary function, the inverse oprator, Rules for finding the particular integral, Method of variations of parameters, Cauchy’s and Legendre’s linear differential equations. Simultaneous linear differential equations with constant co-efficient, Applications to electrical circuits.

**UNIT-II :** Laplace transforms: definition, standard forms, properties of Laplace transform, inverse Laplace transform, initial and final value theorem, Convolution theorem, Laplace transform of impulse function, Unit step function, Laplace transforms of periodic function.

**UNIT-III :**

a) Application of L.T. to linear differential equations with constant coefficients & Simultaneous linear differential equations.

b) Fourier transforms- Definition, standard forms, inverse Fourier transform, Properties of Fourier transforms, Convolution theorem, Fourier sine and Fourier cosine transforms and integrals.

#### SECTION-B

**UNIT-IV :**

a) Difference equation:- solution of difference equations of first order, Solution of difference equations of higher order with constant co-efficients.

b) Z-transform: Definition, standard forms, Z-transform of impulse function, Unit step functions, Properties of Ztransforms (Linearity, shifting, multiplication by k, change of scale), initial and final values, inverse Z-transforms (by direct division and partial fraction), Solution of difference equation by Z-transforms.

**UNIT-V :** Vector calculus: Scalar and vector point functions, Differentiation of vectors, Curves in space,Gradient of a scalar point function, and their physical meaning, expansion formulae (without proof).

**UNIT-VI :** Line, surface, volume integrals, irrotational and solenoidal vector fields, Stoke’s and Divergence theorem (without proof).

#### BOOKS RECOMMENDED:

1) Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 3 edi – Potter, OxfordUniversity Press, 2008

2) Mathematical Techniques – Jordan and Smith 4/e – Oxford University Press, 2008

3) A Mathematical Companion for Science and Engineering Students – Brettenbach, Oxford University Press, 2008

4) Elements of Applied Mathematics by P.N.Wartikar and J.N.Wartikar

5) Advancing Engg. Mathematics by E.K.Kreyzig

#### SECTIONA

**Unit I :**

a] Terminal Element Relationships: V-I relationship for Inductance and Capacitance- Constant Flux Linkage Theorem and Constant Charge Theorem- v-i relationship for Independent Voltage and Current Sources – v-i relationship for dependent voltage and current sources- Source Functions: unit impulse, unit step, unit ramp and inter relationship, sinusoidal input ,generalized exponential input.

b] Basic Nodal and mesh Analysis: Introduction, Nodal analysis, the super node, mesh analysis, the super mesh, nodal vs mesh analysis.

**Unit II : **Network Theorems : Linearity and superposition, source transformations, Thevinin’s theorem , Norton’s theorem, Maximum power transfer theorem, Delta-wye transformations Reciprocity theorem, Milliman’s theorem, Substitution theorem, Compensation theorem, Tellegen’s theorems.

**Unit III : **Time Domain Analysis of Circuits: Linear Differential Equations for Series RC, Parallel RC, Series RL, Parallel RL, Series RLC, Parallel RLC and Coupled Circuits-Complete Solution for step/impulse/sinusoid voltage/current inputs- Natural Response-Transient Response-Time Constant-Rise and Fall times-Concept of d.c steady state and sinusoidal steady state-Frequency Response of simple circuits from steady state solution-Solution of two mesh circuits by differential equation method-Determination of initial conditions.

#### SECTION B

**Unit IV :**

a] Review of Laplace Transforms: Laplace Transform-Transform Pairs-Gate Functions-Shifting Theorem-Solution of Differential Equations by Laplace Transforms-Initial and Final Value Theorems-Laplace Transforms of periodic signals- Inversion of transforms by partial fractions-Convolution Theorem and Convolution Integral. (Review to be done by students. No class hour will be spent for this review.)

b] Transformation of a Circuit into s-domain: Transformed equivalent of inductance, capacitance and mutual inductance -Impedance and admittance in the transform domain – Node Analysis and Mesh Analysis of the transformed circuit – Nodal Admittance Matrix and Mesh Impedance Matrix in the s-domain – Solution of transformed circuits including mutually coupled circuits-Input and transfer immittance functions – Transfer functions – Impulse response and Transfer function – Poles and Zeros – Pole Zero plots.

**Unit V :**

a] Sinusoidal Steady State analysis: Introduction, characteristics of sinusoids, forced response to sinusoidal functions, the complex forcing function, The phasor, phasor relationships for R L C, impedance and admittance , sinusoidal steady state analysis with phasors.

b] Fourier Series: Fourier Series representation of nonsinusoidal periodic waveforms – Fourier Coefficients- Determination of Coefficients-Waveform Symmetry- Exponential Fourier Series-Discrete Amplitude and Phase Spectra-Steady State Solution of Circuits with non-sinusoidal periodic inputs by Fourier Series.

**Unit VI :** Two Port Networks: two port networks-characterizations in terms of impedance, admittance, hybrid and transmission parameters-inter relationships among parameter sets- Reciprocity Theorem-Interconnection of Two port networks: Series, Parallel and Cascade – Network Functions-Pole Zero plots and steady state response from pole-zero plots.

#### Recomended Book:

1) Engineering Circuit Analysis 6/e By Hayt & Kemmerly TataMcgraw Hill 2004

2) Network Analysis, By M.E. Van Valkenberg PHI 2005

3) Electrical Linear Circuits – David Bell Oxford University Press 2008

4) Linear Circuit Analysis 2/e – DeCarlo and Lin Oxford University Press 2009

5) Network Analysis, P.Ramesh babu, SCITECH Publications,Chennai 2009

6) Circuit and Network Analysis By Sudhakar Shyammohan Tata Mc Graw Hill 2005

7) Circuits & Networks – Analysis, Design & Synthesis by M.S.Sukhija,T.K.Nagasarkar, Oxford University Press, 2010

#### SECTION-A

**Unit I :** Thermal and Hydro Power plant: Selection of site, working of various parts: Economizer, air preheater, condenser, cooling tower, coal handling system, ash handling system, Classification of hydro power plant according to available head, nature of load, functions of different components and their working.

**Unit II :** Nuclear and Diesel Power plant: Methods of producing nuclear reactions, functions of different components of nuclear plant, functions of different components of diesel plant

**Unit III :** Solar Energy and its measurement: Solar constants, solar radiation at earth’s surface, solar radiation geometry, solar radiation measurement, estimation of average solar radiation, solar radiation on tilted surface, principle of solar energy conversion in to heat, flat plate collectors, energy balance equation and collector efficiency

#### SECTION-B

**Unit IV :**

a] Fuel cells: Chemistry applied to fuel cells, principle and operation ,classification and types of fuel cells, performance characteristics of fuel cells, classification of fuel cells system

b] Wind Energy: Basic principle of wind energy conversion, wind data and energy estimation, selection of site, basic components of wind energy conversion system (WECS), classification of WEC systems, generating system, energy 38 39 storage, application of wind energy.

**Unit V : **Ocean and tidal energy: Ocean energy resources, ocean energy routes, ocean thermal energy conversion, progressive wave, wave data collection, Basic principle of tidal power, components of tidal power plants, operation methods of utilization of tidal energy, estimation of power and energy in simple single basin tidal system

**Unit VI :** Other non- conventional energy resources: Operating principle of energy from biomass, energy from biogas, geothermal energy, MHD power generation, energy from urban and rural waste, mini and micro hydroelectric power generation, principle and operation of fuel cells, classification and types of fuel cells, performance characteristics of fuel cells.

#### Recomended Book:

1) Energy Science, Principles Technologies & Impacts, John Andrews& Nick Jelley, Oxford University Press, 2009

2) Renewable Energy – Power for Sustainable Future, Godfrey Boyle,Oxford University Press, 2004

3) Conventional Energy Technology By S.B.Pandya, Tata McGrawHill,2005

4) Non Conventional Energy Resources By G.D.Rai, Khanna Publishers, 2001

5) Energy and Atmosphere By I.M.Campbell, Wiley, New York, 2006

6) Solar Energy By S.P.Sukhatme, Tata Mc-GrawHill, 2006

7) Conventional Energy Resourses By B.H.Khan, Tata McGrawHill,2003

Any TEN experiments based on contents of 3 EP02 NETWORK ANALYSIS

3 EP07/3EX07/3EL07/3EE 07 ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LAB

Any TEN experiments based on contents of 3 EP04 ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS

3 EP08/3EX08/3EL08/3EE 08 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION LAB

Any TEN experiments based on contents of 3 EP05ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

3 EP04/3EX04/3EL04/3EE 04 ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS

#### SECTION A

**UNIT-I :** P-N Junction diode theory, Rectifiers – Half wave, full wave and bridge rectifier. Filters-C, LC and their analysis, Zener diode and its applications.**UNIT-II : **Theory and Analysis of Bipolar Junction transistor, ‘H’ Parameter, methods of biasing, their needs, ‘Q’ and stability factors, compensation techniques.**UNIT-III **Study of typical transistor amplifier circuits

i) Emitter follower,

ii) Darlington emitter follower.

iii) Bootstrap emitter follower,

iv) RC coupled amplifier,

v) Transformer coupled amplifier,

vi) Cascaded amplifier,

vii) Direct coupled amplifier,

viii) Cascade stage.

#### SECTION B

**UNIT-IV :** Class ‘A’ ‘B’ ‘AB’ and ‘C’ amplifiers, configuration of audio amplifiers, Calculations of power gain, efficiency, dissipation and distortion, oscillators, their criteria, Hartley, Collpit and R-C oscillators, Crystal oscillator.**UNIT-V :** Theory, construction and applications of Schottky diode,Tunnel diode, Varactor diode, Selenium diode, LED, Photo diode, PIN diode, photo-transistor.**UNIT-VI : **FETs (JFET & MOSFET) : Types, Characteristics and parameters (u, gm & Rds),Applications of FET amplifiers, UJT: Characteristics, working, UJT as relaxation oscillator.

#### Recomended Books:

1) Millman’s Electronic Devices & Circuits by J.Millman, C.Halkias,Satyabrata Jit TMH 3rd ed, 2nd reprint 2011

2) Electronic Devices and Circuits 5/e – David Bell Oxford University Press

3) Microelectronic Circuits 5/3 – Sedra nad Smith Oxford University Press

4) Boylestad R. and “Electronics Devices & Circuits”, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi (Fifth Edition), 1993

#### SECTION-A

**Unit I :** Measuring Instruments: Classification, deflecting, controlling, damping, breaking torques. Basic principles of operation of Ammeter & Voltmeter: PMMC, MI, Electro dynamic, Electrostatic: construction, Principle of operation, torque equation, Scale shape, errors, merits & demerits of each type.**Unit II : **Watt meters & Energy meters: Electro dynamic & Induction type: construction, theory of operation, torque equation, errors & demerits, Electronic energy meter. Analysis of three phase balanced load, Blondel’s Theorem, Measurement of active & reactive power & energy in single phase & three phase circuits.**Unit III :**

a] Instrument Transformer: Need of extension of range: extension using shunt & multipliers Instrument transformers: 40 41 CT & PT, Theory & construction, Phasor diagram, Ratio & Phase angle error, causes of error, applications Hall effect sensors for voltage and current measurement.

b] Special Measuring Instruments :- Maximum demand indicator, Trivector meter, Frequency meter, P.F. meter, Phase sequence indicator, Synchroscope, stroboscope, potentiometers.

#### SECTION-B

**Unit IV :** Measurement of circuit parameters: Different methods of measurement of low, medium & high value of resistance, sensitivity & accuracy of different methods. AC & DC bridges : Wheatstone, Kelvin, Maxwell, Wein, Hay, Desauty, Anderson, Schearing**Unit V :** Generalized instrumentation system , characteristics of measurement & instrumentation system Transducers : Definition, classification, specification, selection & loading effect, Displacement, Velocity, force, & Torque transducers, Resistive, Inductive, capacitive, Strain gauge, Piezoelectric, current & voltage transducers.**Unit VI :** Transducers for pressure & temperature: Manometer, Elastic members (Bellows, Bourdon tube, Diaphragm), RTD, Thermocouple, Thermister, Infrared & Crystal Cathode ray oscilloscope: Time, frequency & phase angle measurement using CRO. Spectrum & Wave analyzer.

**Recomended Book:**

1) Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation by Oliver – cage,TMH 4th reprint 2010

2) Electronic Instrumentation by H.S Kalsi, TMH 3rd edition, 2nd reprint 2011

3) Instrumentation for scientists and Engineers – Turner Oxford University Press 2008

4) Electronic Instrumentation & Measurement , David Bell Oxford University Press 2nd Ed

5) A course in Electrical, Electronics measurement and Instrumentation, By A.K.Sawhney Dhanpat Rai & sons 2006

6) Electrical measurement and measuring Instruments By Golding Wheeler Publishing 2003

7) Electronic measurement and measuring Instruments By Coo

## SEMESTER: FOURTH

**SECTION-A**

**Unit I :** D.C. Machines Construction, principle of operation, Emf equation, torque equation. Armature winding – Lap, wave, single layer, double layer. Armature reaction and commutation, method of improving commutation.**Unit II :** D.C. Generators. Types, characteristics and applications of d.c. shunt, series and compound generators. Parallel operation of d.c. shunt, series and compound generators. Introduction for conducting and reporting the test on d.c. machines as per Indian standard.**Unit III:** D.C. Motors Characteristics, applications of d.c. shunt, series and compound motors, starting and speed control, losses, efficiency and testing

**SECTION-B**

**Unit IV:** Single phase Transformer. Heat run test, separation of core losses in to its component, parallel operation, equivalent circuit. Autotransformer – construction, working, merits, demerits and application. Introduction for conducting and reporting the test on transformer as per Indian standard.**Unit V:** Three phase Transformer: Construction, working, types, connections, applications, testing, parallel operation, open delta, power transformer, distribution transformer construction.**Unit VI:** Three phase to single phase, two phase, six phase, twelve phase conversion. Three-winding transformer and tap

**BOOKS RECOMMENDED:-**

1) Electrical Machines by D.P.Kothari, I.J.nagrath TMH 4th edition, 2nd reprint 2011

2) ELECTRIC MACHINERY and Transformer, 3E – Bhag S Guru Oxford University Press 3) Advance Electrical Technology By H.Cooton. 1999

4) Substation Equipment By Satnam and Gupta 2003 .

**SECTION-A**

**Unit I :** Review of Vector Analysis :cartesian, cylindrical and spherical co-ordinate systems, vector algebra and vector calculas. Line integral and multiple integrals. Gauss theorem.**Unit II :** Electrostatics : Coulomb’s law, electric field, Gauss flux theorem in integral and differential form. Electrostatics potential, Poison and Laplace equations.**Unit III:** Electrostatics fields in dielectrics : electric dipole, polarization. P and D vectors, boundary conditions. Capacitance and electrical energy.

**SECTION-B**

**Unit IV:** Magnetic fields : Biot-Stewart law, Ampere’s law in integral and differential form. Contunuity equation, time of relaxation. Vector and Scaler magnetic potential, electric current, J vector.**Unit V :** Magnetic fields in materials : magnetic dipole equivalent volume and plane section curve. H vector, magnetization vector M, boundary conditions between magnetic materials, inductance, Electromagnetic Energy.**Unit VI:** Maxwell equations and wave equations : Displacement current, time varying fields and Maxwell’s equations, plane uniform magnetic waves. Depth of penetration pointing vector.

**Recommended Books:-**

1) Engineering Electromagnetics by W.H.Hayt, J.A.Buck, TMH 7th edition 2010

2) Foundation of Electromagnetic Theory, John Reitz, F.J.Milford,R.W.Christy, Pearson education, 4th edition 2010

3) Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Nannapaneni Narayana Rao, Pearson education, 2006

4) Principles of Electromagnetics 4/e Mathew Sadiku Oxford University

**SECTION A**

**Unit I :** Introduction to IC’s : Characteristics of IC components, Operation amplifier; Block schematic internal circuits, Level shifting, overload protection, study of IC 741 op-amo, Measurement of op-amp parameter.**Unit II :** Linear and Non-linear Application of Op-amp:- Inverting and noninverting amplifiers, voltage follower, integrator, differentiator differential amplifier, Sinusoidal RC-phaseshift and Wein bridge oscillators, clipping, clamping and comparator circuits using op-amps. Astable, bistable and monostable multi vibrator using op-amps.**Unit III :** Other linear IC’s : Block schematic of regulator IC 723, and its applications, study of 78 **, 79 ** and its applications, SMPS, Block schematic of timer IC 555 and its applications as a timer, astable, mono stable, bistable multivibrator and other applications, Operation of phase lock loop system and IC 565 PLL, its application

**SECTION B**

**Unit IV :** Basic Logic Circuits : Logic gate characteristics, NMOS invertor, propagation delay, NMOS logic gate, CMOS invertor, CMOS logic gates, BJT invertor, TTL, NAND gate, TTL output, state TTL logic families, ECL circuits, composition logic families.**Unit V :** Combinational Digital Circuits: Standard gate assemblies, Binary adder, Arithmetic functions, Digital comparator, Parity check generator, Decoder / demultiplexer, Data selector / multiplexer, Encoder, ROM, Two dimensional addressing of ROM,ROM applications, PROM,EPROM,PAL AND PLAS.**Unit VI :** Sequential Circuits and Systems: Bistable Latch, Flip-Flop clocked SR,J-K, T, D type shift Registers, counter. Design using filp-flops, Ripple and synchronous types, application of counters, Dynamic MOS shift registers, RAM, Bipolar RAM

**RECOMENDED BOOKS:**

1) Millman, Microelectronics, 2nd Ed., McGraw Hill.

2) Gayakwad, Op-Amp & LLG, 2nd Ed.

3) Malvino & Leach, Digital Principles & Applications, 4th Ed., McGraw Hill

**SECTIONA**

**Unit I :** a) Complex variables : analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann conditions. Harmonic function, Harmonic conjugate functions, Milne’s method. b) Confirmed mapping : mapping by elementary functions of the type W=z+c, W=cz, W=1/z, W=z2, W=e2, W=z+1/z and bilinear transformation. (10 Hrs.)**Unit II :** Complex Integral : singular points, Taylor’s series, Laurent’s series, Cauchy’s integral theorem and Cauchy’s integral formula. Residue : Cauchy’s residue theorem. Contour integrals. Integration forms : f(x) dx, f (sinx, cos x) dx (10 Hrs.)**Unit III:** Patial differential equations : first order and first degree p.d. equation type. (i) f (p, q) = 0, (ii) f (p, q, z) = 0, (iii) f (p, q, x, y) = 0 (iv) f (p, q, x, y, z) = 0 etc. Lagrange’s form Pp + Qq = R. Clarinet’s form Z = px + qv + f (p, q). Equation reducible to standard form. Homogeneous P.D.E. of nth order. (10 Hrs.)

**SECTION B**

**Unit IV:** Special functions : solution of Legendre’s and Bessel’s equations by Frobensious method, Bessel’s function Ist kind generating function, recurrence relating values of J 1/2 (x) , J -1/ 2(x), J 3/2 (x) etc.Legendre’s function of Ist kind : generating function, Rodrigues function, recurrence relation, Legendre’s polynomials and orthogonal properties. (10 Hrs.)**Unit V :** Statistics & Probability : Axioms, conditional probability, Bay’e theorem, mathematical expectations, probability distributions : Binomial, Possion and Normal. (10 Hrs.)**Unit VI:** a) Curve fittings by method of Least Squares. Correlation and regression. b) Matrix differential equation : solution and integrated solution, Sylvester’s theorem, solution of differential equations by matrix method and Peano Baker method. (10 Hrs.)

**RECOMMENDED BOOKS:**

1) Pipes : Mathematics for Engineers and Physicist.

2) P.N. Wartikar and J.N.Wartikar : A Text Book of Applied Mathematics.

3) B.S.Grewal : Advance Engineering Mathematics.

**SECTION A**

**Unit I :** Solution of Algebraic & Transcendental equations : Floating point number representation, errors, accuracy, stability of algorithms. Bracketing methods : bisection method and False Position method. Open methods : Newton-Raphson method, Secant method and Successive Approximation method. Comparison of different iterative methods. Implementation of these methods in C.**Unit II :** Solution of Simultaneous Algebraic equations : Iterative methods : Jacobi’s method and Gauss-Seidel method. Direct methods : Gaussian elimination method & Matrix Inverse method. Finding Eigen values of a matirx, determination of largest Eigen value. Implementation of these methods in C.**Unit III :** Interpolation : Evenly spaced points : formation of forward & backward difference table, Newton’s forward & backward difference interpolation formulae. Unevenly spaced points divided difference table and Newton’s divided difference interpolation formula, Lagrange’s method. Interpolation with Cubic splines. Implementation of these methods in C.

**SECTION B**

**Unit IV :** Numerical Differentiation and Integration : Numerical differentiation : Taylor’s series method, Richardson extrapolation method, numerical differentiation using interpolation polynomial (first & second derivative near the begining & end of the table). Numerical Integration : Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s Rules, Romberg method, Gaussian quadrature method. Implementation of these methods in C.**Unit V :** Solution of ordinary differential equations : Initial value problem : Taylor’s series method, Runge-Kutta methods – second & fourth order, Euler’s method, Euler’s modified method. Solution of simultaneous & higher order differential equations using Runge-Kutta fourth order method. Stiff differential equations and their solutions. Boundary value problem : Finite difference method and Cubic spline method. Implementation of these methods in C.**Unit VI :** Principles of Object Oriented Programming : OOP paradigm, basic concepts of OOP, benefits of OOP, basic data types, users defined data types, derived data types, operators and control statements.

**RECOMENDED BOOKS:**

1) Numerical Methods with Programms in C by T.Veerarajan,T.Ramachandran TMH 2nd edition, 6th reprint 2011

2) Numerical Methods – Principles, Analysis & Algorithms Pal, Oxford University Press , 2008

3) Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists – Guha Oxfor University Press 2008

4) Computer Fundamentals and Programming in C – Dey and GhoshOxford University Press 2008

5) Chapra S.S. & Canale R.P. : Numerical Methods for Engineers, 4th edition, McGraw Hill.

6) Balguruswami E. : Object Oriented Programming with C++, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.

7) Nakamura S. : Applied Numerical Methods in C, Prentice Hall.

4EP06/4EX06/4EL06/4EE 06 ELECTRICAL MACHINES I LAB

Any TEN experiments based on contents of 4EP01

4EP07/4EL07/4EE 07 ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LAB

Any TEN experiments based on contents of 4EP03

4EP08/4EX08/4EL08/4EE 08 NUMERICAL METHODS AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING

Any TEN experiments based on contents of 4EP05

## Third Year ENTC

FIFTH SEMESTER

5FEXT5 / 5FEXN5 (1) CONSUMER ELECTRONICS

5FEXT5 /5FEXN5 (2) FIBER OPTICS

**SECTION-A**

Unit I : Linear wave shaping using RC and RL circuits, analysis and calculations of RC low pass and high pass filters, analysis of clipping and clamping circuits using diodes and switching

transistors.

Unit II : Switching characteristics of semiconductor devices : Diode as switch, transistor as a switch, characteristics and analysis, FET as a switch, characteristics, JFET, CMOS, switching speed of devices : Schottky diode and transistor, Logic gates.

Unit III : Collector coupled bistable, monostable and astable multivibrators, Time base generators & Sweep Generators.Boolean Algebra, Number systems, Gray codes, Arithmetic

operations using Two’s compliments.

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV : Study and analysis of Digital Logic Families : RTL, DTL, HTL,TTL, ECL, IIL, CMOS, and their characteristics, tri-state logic,5400/7400 TTL series.

Unit V : Flip-flops : R-S, J-K, Master slave J-K, D-type, T-type; registers and counters, adders and subtractors using logic gates, D/A converters and types: Weighted resister, R-2R ladder. A/

D converters and Types: Ramp, Dual slope, Successive approximation.

Unit VI : Types of semiconductor memories, sequential memories, 2 and 4 phase ratioless shift registers, static shift registers,implementation of ROM (ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM)

BJT RAM cell, MOS-RAM, CCD memories.

**BOOKS RECOMMENDED :**

1) Jacob Millman & Herbert Taub : “Pulse Digital & Switching waveforms”, McGraw Hill International Book Co.

2) Taub H. and Schillings D.L., London, : “Digital Integrated Electronics”, McGraw Hill Company.

3) R. P. Jain : “Modern Digital Electronics”, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi 1998.

4) Malvino A.P. & Leach D.P. : “Digital Principles &Applications”, TMH Publishing Co., New Delhi (3rd Edition)

**SECTION-A**

Unit I : SCR, Triac, LASCR, Diac-construction, characteristics, two transistor analogy for turning ON of a SCR, turn ON mechanism, different methods of turning ON of a SCR, turn

OFF mechanism, Thyristor firing circuits. Introduction to GTO, power transistor, power MOSFET, IGBT – their construction & characteristics.

Unit II: Series parallel operation of SCRs, static & dynamic equalizing ckts., equalisation of current in parallel connected SCRs, string efficiency, derating factor, Protection of SCRs against di/dt, dv/dt, radio freq., interference, over voltage, over current.

Unit III: Principle of phase control, half wave controlled rectifier, half controlled bridge & fully controlled bridge rectifier for resistive and RL load, derivation for output voltage and current,

effect of free wheeling diode, single phase dual converters. Three phase half controlled bridge and fully controlled bridge rectifier.

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: Classification of ckt. for forced commutation, series inverter, improved series inverter, parallel inverter, output voltage and waveform control, principle of operation for three phase bridge inverter in 120 deg. and 180 deg. mode, single phase transistorised bridge inverter, current source inverter,harmonics reduction techniques.

Unit V: Basic principles of chopper, time ratio control and current limit control techniques, voltage commutated chopper ckt., Jones chopper, step-up chopper and AC chopper. Basic principle of cycloconverter, single phase to single phase cycloconverter.

Unit VI: Speed control of DC series motors using chopper, speed control of DC shunt motor using phase controlled rectifiers, Static ckt. breaker, UPS, fan speed regulator, principle of soft start ckts, electronic ballast.

TEXT BOOKS:

1) M. Ramamoorthy, Thyristor and their application. 2) M. H. Rashid – Power Electronics Circuits, Devices and Application, Pearson Edu.

3) SCR Manual GE.

**REFERENCE BOOKS :**

1) Joseph Vithayathil, “Power Electronics: Principles and Applications”, McGraw-Hill

2) Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland, William P. Robbins, “Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design”, Wiley

3) K. Hari Babu – Power Electronics, Scitech Pub..

4) Devdatta Y. Shingare, A Text book of Industrial & power electronics, Electrotech Pub. Satara.

5) J. S. Katre, Power Electronics, Tech-max Pub. Pune.

**SECTION-A**

Unit I : SCR, Triac, LASCR, Diac-construction, characteristics, two transistor analogy for turning ON of a SCR, turn ON mechanism, different methods of turning ON of a SCR, turn

OFF mechanism, Thyristor firing circuits. Introduction to GTO, power transistor, power MOSFET, IGBT – their construction & characteristics.

Unit II: Series parallel operation of SCRs, static & dynamic equalizing ckts., equalisation of current in parallel connected SCRs, string efficiency, derating factor, Protection of SCRs against di/dt, dv/dt, radio freq., interference, over voltage, over current.

Unit III: Principle of phase control, half wave controlled rectifier, half controlled bridge & fully controlled bridge rectifier for resistive and RL load, derivation for output voltage and current,

effect of free wheeling diode, single phase dual converters. Three phase half controlled bridge and fully controlled bridge rectifier.

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: Classification of ckt. for forced commutation, series inverter, improved series inverter, parallel inverter, output voltage and waveform control, principle of operation for three phase bridge inverter in 120 deg. and 180 deg. mode, single phase transistorised bridge inverter, current source inverter,harmonics reduction techniques.

Unit V: Basic principles of chopper, time ratio control and current limit control techniques, voltage commutated chopper ckt., Jones chopper, step-up chopper and AC chopper. Basic principle of cycloconverter, single phase to single phase cycloconverter.

Unit VI: Speed control of DC series motors using chopper, speed control of DC shunt motor using phase controlled rectifiers, Static ckt. breaker, UPS, fan speed regulator, principle of soft start ckts, electronic ballast.

TEXT BOOKS:

1) M. Ramamoorthy, Thyristor and their application. 2) M. H. Rashid – Power Electronics Circuits, Devices and Application, Pearson Edu.

3) SCR Manual GE.

**REFERENCE BOOKS :**

1) Joseph Vithayathil, “Power Electronics: Principles and Applications”, McGraw-Hill

2) Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland, William P. Robbins, “Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design”, Wiley

3) K. Hari Babu – Power Electronics, Scitech Pub..

4) Devdatta Y. Shingare, A Text book of Industrial & power electronics, Electrotech Pub. Satara.

5) J. S. Katre, Power Electronics, Tech-max Pub. Pune.

**SECTION-A**

Unit I : Basic definition; closed and open loop systems; transfer function, block diagrams, derivation of transfer functions of physical systems, signal flow graphs, basic control action.

Unit II : Time Response Analysis: Typical test inputs, , Impulse response function, Transient Domain specifications, Analysis of first, second & higher order systems, Steady state analysis: steady state error and error constants, Dynamic error coefficients.

Unit III: 1. Stability Analysis: stability of control system, Routh Hurwitz’s stability criterion,

2. Roots Locus: Introduction to Root Locus method; Root Locus plots, Rules for constructing root loci, stability analysis of systems using Root locus, concept of dominant closed loop pole pair, Root contour plots, effect of addition of zeros & poles.**SECTION-B**

Unit IV : Introduction of frequency response, Bode plots, stability margins on the Bode plot, stability analysis of systems using Bode plots, polar plots, Nyquist stability criterion, relative

stability.

Unit V : State Space representation of systems, conversion of state variable models to transfer functions, conversion of transfer functions to state variable models, solution of state equations,

concepts of controllability and observability.

Unit VI : Sample Data Control Systems : Representation of sampled data (Discrete) systems, review of Z-transforms, Sampler and hold ckt., Zero order hold, sampling theorem, Z-transform

analysis of sampled data control systems (open & closed loop systems), Z transform of systems. Solution of difference equation by Z-transform methods. Response of discrete systems. Pulse Transform functions of open loop, closed loop systems with different sampler locations. Digital controller & its transfer functions, Stability analysis of discrete time system using bilinear transformation.**TEXT BOOK :**

1. Nagrath I. J. and M. Gopal, “Control Systems Engineering”, 5th Ed. New Age International.

2. K. Ogata : Modern Control Engineering, Fourth Edition(PHI)

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1) Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, “Modern Control Systems”, 11th Ed., Pearson Education.

2) M. Gopal : Digital Control Systems Principles & Design (TMH)

3) Norman S. Nise, “Control System Engineering”, 5th Edition, Wiley.

4) Bhattarcharya: Control System Engineering, 2nd Edition (Pearson Education).

**SECTION-A**

Unit I : AM Transmitters : Modulation, need of modulation, AM Modulation, Frequency spectrum, Principles of DSB-FC, DSBSC, SSB-SC modulation and their comparison, Details of

DSBFC Transmitter, Generation of DSB-SC by using balanced modulators (FET & Diodes), DSB-SC Transmitter, Generation of SSB-SC by filter method, phase-shift method & third

method (weavers).

Unit II : AM Receivers : TRF receiver, Super heterodyne receiver, Details of each block such as RF amplifier, mixer oscillator, IF amplifier, Diode detector, Audio Amplifier. Need and type of AGC, selectivity sensitivity, fidelity Image rejection ration, communication receiver, SNR of DSB-FC, DSB-SC & SSB-SC

Unit III : FM Transmitters : FM Modulation, Frequency Spectrum, Circuits & Analysis for direct FM generation using FET and varactor diode. Circuit & analysis of Indirect FM generation,Narrow Band and Wide Band FM, their comparison, preemphasis and De- emphasis. Stereo FM Transmitter.

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV : FM Receivers : Details of FM receiver blocks such as R.F. amplifier, local oscillator, IF amplifier, Mixer, Audio Amplifier, AGC, Limiter, FM Discriminator, Single Slope and Balanced slope detector, Analysis of Foster Seeley and ratio detectors, Stereo FM receiver, Noise in FM Reception, FM threshold effect.

Unit V: Pulse Modulation Techniques: The sampling theorem, Sampling of Band-Pass Signal, Linear and Non linear quantization, Aliasing effect, Aperture effect, Reconstruction filter, Time Division Multiplexing, Pulse Amplitude Modulation, Pulse Time Modulation, PCM, DM, ADM

Unit VI : Telephone Switching Techniques : Introduction to Switching System, Pulse dialing, Touch tone dial telephone, Space Division Switching SPC, Centralized and Distributed SPC, Time Division Switching : Basic Time Division space switching, Time Division time switching, Time multiplexed space switching, Time Multiplexed time switching, EPABX.**Text Books:-**

(1) Taub and Schilling D.L. : Principles of Communication Systems, McGraw Hill Co, Tokyo, 1994 (II Ed.)

(2) Kennedy G. : “Electronic Communication System” Tata Mc-Graw Hill Co., New Delhi (Third Edition)

(3) T. Vishwanathan : “ Telecommunication Switching systems and Networks”, PHI learning Private Ltd., 2009**Reference Books :**

(1) Wayne Tomasi, “Electronic Communication Systems”, Pearson Education, third edition

(2) Simon Haykin : “Communication System, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York, (Third Edition), 1994

(3) B. P. Lathi : “ Modern Digital and Analog Communication systems” 4th Edition Oxford University Press.

(4) Hari Bhat: “Analog communication”, 2nd Edition Pearson India, 2010

(5) S. Kundu: “ Analog and Digital communication”, Pearson India 2010

5FEXT5 / 5FEXN5 (1) CONSUMER ELECTRONICS

**SECTION-A**

Unit I : Audio Systems: Microphones, Loudspeakers, Speaker baffle and enclosure, Acoustics, Mono, Stereo, Quad, Amplifying Systems, Equalizers and Mixers, Electronic Music Synthesizers, Commercial Sound, Theater Sound System ( 8 Lectures )

Unit II : Video Systems and Displays: Colour TV standards and systems, TFT, Plasma, HDTV, Digital TV, Remote Controls, Video Telephone and Video Conferencing ( 8 Lectures )

Unit III : Domestic Appliances: Washing machines, Microwave ovens, Air- conditioners and Refrigerators, Computers Office Systems: FAX, Xerox, Telephone Switching System, Mobile

Radio System. ( 8 Lectures )

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV : Recording and Reproduction Systems: Disc recording and reproduction, Magnetic recording and reproduction, Video disc recording and play back, Distortion and Noise reduction in Audio and Video System ( 8 Lectures )

Unit V : Power Supplies and other systems: SMPS, UPS and Preventive Maintenance, Set Top Boxes, Remote controls, Bar codes, ATM, Dish washers ( 8 Lectures )

Unit VI : Calculators: Structure, internal organization, servicing; In-Car- Computers: electronic ignition, electronic ignition lock system, Antilock Braking System (ABS), Electronically

controlled Suspension (ECS), Instrument panel displays, ultrasonic car safety belt system, Air Bag System, Vehicle proximity detection system, car navigation system ( 8 Lectures )

Text Book:1. Consumer Electronics S P Bali Pearson Ed 2005

5FEXT5 /5FEXN5 (2) FIBER OPTICS

**SECTION-A**

Unit -I : Light Ray Theory

Propagation of light in different media : propagation of light in an optical fiber, Basic structure and optical path of an optical fiber, Acceptance angle and acceptance cone, Numerical

aperture(NA) (General), Modes of propagation, Meridional and skew rays, Number of modes and cut-off parameters of fibers.8 Lectures

Unit – II: Losses and Dispersion in Optical Fiber

Fiber Losses : Attenuation in optic fibers, Materials losses,Rayleigh scattering losses, Absorption loss, Leaky modes, Bending losses, Radiation losses.

Dispersion in optical fiber: Electrical Vs. optical bandwidth. Bandwidth-length product, Intermodal dispersion, Mixing modes, Material chromatic dispersion. (8 Lectures)

Unit-III: Light Sources and Detectors for Optical Fiber (8 Lectures)

Light Sources : Introduction, LED (Light Emitting Diode), Processes involved, structure material and output characteristics of LED, Fiber LED coupling, Bandwidth, Spectral emission of LEDs, LASERS : Operation types, Spatial emission pattern, Current Vs. output characteristics.

Detectors : Introduction, Characteristics of photo detectors (General), Photoemissive type, Photoconductive and photo voltaic devices, PN junction type, PIN photo diode, Avalanche

photo diode (APD).**SECTION-B**

Unit -IV: Fiber optic Communication systems and Modulation

Fiber Communication systems : Transmitter for fiber optic communication, High performance transmitter circuit LED – Analog transmitter, LASER transmitter, Digital laser transmitter, Analog laser transmitter with A/D conversion and digital multiplexing, Fiber optic receiver, Fiber based modems : Transceiver.

Modulation : LED analog modulation, Digital modulation, Laser modulation, Pulse code modulation (PCM), Intensity modulation (IM). (8 Lectures)

Unit -V: Optical Fiber Communication application

Optical fiber communication systems : Introduction, Important applications of integrated optic fiber communication technology, Long haul communication, Coherent optical fiber Commun-ication, Principle of coherent detection. (8 Lectures)

Unit -VI : Measurements on Optical Fibers

Introduction, Measurements of numerical aperture (NA),Measurements of Fiber- attenuation, Optical time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR), Measure-ments of dispersion losses, Measurements of refractive index, Cut-off wavelengthmeasurement, Measurements of Mode Field Diameter (MFD), (8 Lectures)

Text Books:

1. Optical Fiber Communications : Principles and Practices- John M. Senior (PHI)

2. Optical Fiber and Optical Fiber Communication Systems S. K. Sarkar (S. Chand and Comp.

Unit I : Comprehension over an unseen passage. Comprehension – A – word study :- Synonym, antonym, meanings, matching words, adjectives, adverbs, prefix and suffix, correct forms of

commonly misspelled words, understanding of the given passage. Comprehension – B – Structure study :-Simple and compound sentences, types of conjunctions, singular and plural, tenses and their effect on verb forms. Use of – not only – but also, if clause, since, may, can, could, would, too etc. Active and passive forms, negative and interrogative, punctuation and capitalization.

Unit II : Theoretical background – importance of communication, its process, model of communication its components & barriers. Verbal communication, its significance, types of written communication, organization of a text (Titles, summaries, headings, sequencing, signaling, cueing etc.), Important text factors (length of paragraph, sentences, words, clarification and text difficulty). Evaluation of written communication for its effectively and subject content. Non-verbal communication, types of graphics and pictorial devices.

Unit III : Specific formats for written communication like – business correspondence, formal reports, technical proposals, research papers and articles, advertising and graphics. Format for dayto- day written communication like applications, notices, minutes, quotations, orders, enquiries etc. Oral communications – Important objectives of interpersonal skills, (verbal and non-verbal), face to face communications, group discussion and personal interviews. methodology of conduction of meetings, seminars, symposia, conference and workshop.**BOOKS RECOMMENDED:**

1) Krishna Mohan, Meera Banerjee : Developing Communication Skills, MacMillan India Limited.

2) Chrissie Wright (Editor) : Handbook of Practical Communication Skills, Jaico Publishing House.

3) Raman Sharma “Technical Communication”, Oxford University Press..

4) F. Frank Candlin : General English for Technical Students, University of London Press Ltd.

## SIXTH SEMISTER

6FEXT5/ 6FEXN5 (1) INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY

6FEXT5/ 6FEXN5 (2) ELECTRONIC TEST INSTRUMENTS: ANALOG AND DIGITAL

**SECTION-A**

**Unit I : Combinational Logic Design: Function of binary variables, Boolean Algebraic Theorems, Standard form of logicnfunctions, K-Map up to 5 variables, Quine McCluskey Method, Don’t Care Conditions and its effects, Synthesis using ANDOR Gates (8 periods)Unit II: Combinational Logic Design using 74/54 MSI chip series concerning to MUX, DEMUX, Decoders, Encoders, Comparators, Code converters, Priority Encoders, ParityGenerator/Checker and BCD to Seven Segment Decoders (8 periods)Unit III: Combinational Logic Design using ROM array, PLA, PAL, preliminary design concepts using FPGAs, N-bit binary adder using 7480, Look-ahead carry adder construction( 8 periods)**

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: Design of counters and sequential networks. Analysis of clocked sequential networks, general models of sequential machines, equivalence and minimization networks, deviation of state graphs and tables, reduction of state assignments, SM charts ( 8periods)

Unit V: Analysis of asynchronous sequential networks, derivation and reduction of primitive flow tables, state assignments and realization of flow tables, hazards, asynchronous sequential

network design ( 8 periods)

Unit VI: Fault detection and location in combinational circuits. Paths sensitizing method, equivalent – normal – Form method (ENF), two level fault detection, fault detection and location in sequential circuit using circuit test approach ( 8 periods)

Text Books:

1. Charles H. Roth, “Fundamentals of Logic Design”, 4th Edition, Jaico

Publication

2. Lee S. C., “Digital Circuit and Logic Design”, PHI

3. Jain R. P. “Modern Digital Electronic Circuits and Systems”, TMH

Reference Books:

1. Digital IC Reference data manuals

2. Texas Instruments Inc. Design with TTL ICs

3. Morris Mano, “Digital Electronics: Circuits and Systems”, PHI

4. Parag K. Lala, “Fault tolerance and fault testable hardware design, B. S. Publications, Hyderabad

**SECTION-A**

Unit I: Operational Amplifier, block diagram of op-amp, Differential amplifier: gain expressions using h – parameters, constant current source, level shifting, transfer- characteristics, frequency response, frequency compensation methods, study of ICuA741, measurement of parameters of op-amp and offset nulling and their importance.

Unit II: Linear Applications of Op-Amp: Inverting and non inverting amplifiers, voltage followers (AC & DC), integrator, differentiator, differential amplifier, instrumentation amplifiers, precision rectifiers, RMS to DC converter, voltage to current converter, sinusoidal RC oscillators, constant voltage sources, frequency to voltage and voltage to frequency converter.

Unit III: Non Linear Applications of Op-Amp and Filter Circuits: Clipping and clamping circuits, comparator, zero crossing detector, Schmitt trigger, peak detector, astable, monostable

and bistable multivibrator, voltage sweep generator. Active filters : Butterworth filters using op-amp. Log and Antilog amplifiers.

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: Voltage Regulator: Block schematic of regulator IC 723, regulated power supply using IC 723, short circuit protection, switch mode power supply, dual tracking regulators, regulator

using 78**, 79**, and LM 317.

Unit V:1. Timers : Block schematic of IC 555, application of timer 555 as astable, monostable and bistable multivibrators, frequency divider, pulse stretcher, sawtooth generator, free running ramp generator, FSK generator.

Unit V: 2.Sample & hold circuit.

Unit VI:1. PLL: Operation of phase lock loop system, transfer characteristics, lock range and capture range, study of PLL ICLM 565 and its applications as AM detector, FM detector and

frequency translator.

Unit VI: 2. Introduction to Audio Function Generator IC 8038.

Text Books :

1) Gayakwad R.A. : OP-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (Second Edition), 1980.

2) Robert F. Coughlin, Frederick F. Driscoll: Operational Amplifier and Linear Integrated Circuits, Sixth Edition, PHI Pub.

Reference Books :

1) Tobey J.E. and Grame J.E. : Operational Amplifier Design and Applications, International Student Edition, 1983.

2) T.R. Ganesh Babu, B. Suseela: Linear Integrated Circuits, Third Edition, Scitech Pub.

**SECTION-A**

Unit I: 8085 : Architecture, Register Structure, Addressing modes, Instruction set of 8085, Timing diagrams.

Unit II : Assembly Language Programming of 8085, Introduction to assemblers, Simulators, Stack, Subroutine. Address space partitioning schemes : Memory mapped I/O and I/O mapped I/

O, Address decoding techniques.

Unit III: Interrupt system of 8085, software and hardware interrupts, Data transfer schemes: Serial data transfer through SOD and SID, USART 8251 and its interfacing.

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV : Internal architecture, programming and interfacing of PPI 8255, Programmable interval Timer/ Counter 8254, Introduction to DMA data transfer , DMA Controller 8237 and its interfacing.

Unit V : 8086 : CPU architecture, internal operations, addressing modes, instruction formats, execution timing.

Unit VI : Instruction set of 8086, Assembly language programming (ELEMENTARY PROGRAMMING) Assembly Directives, Operators.**Text Books:**

1) A. K. Ray and K. M. Bhurchandi: Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals, Architecture Programming and Interfacing, TMH.

2) Gaonkar R.S. : Microprocessor Architecture Programming and Applications with the 8085, Penram International Pub. (Third Edition), 1997.

2) Gibson G.A., Liu Y.C. : Microcomputer system the 8086/8088 family, Prentice Hall India Pvt. Ltd.

Reference Books:

1) Hall D.V. : Microprocessor and Interfacing Programming and Hardware, McGraw Hill Co., New York, 1986.

2) Data sheet manuals by INTEL.

**SECTION-A**

Unit 1:- Introduction to Digital Communication System Functional Blocks of Digital Communication System; Source Encoder and Decoder; Channel Encoder and Decoder;

Modulator and Demodulator Line Coding:- Need for Line coding; Properties of Line Coding;

Unipolar RZ and NRZ; Polar RZ and NRZ; Bipolar NRZ (AMI); Split Phase Manchester Coding; Polar Quaternary NRZ Coding; HDB3 Coding Scrambler and Unscrambler (6)

Unit 2:- Information Theory

Measure of Information; Entropy and Information Rate of Long Independent and Dependent Sequences; Markoff Statistical Model for Information Sources; Entropy and Information rate

of Markoff Sources Source Encoding: – Huffman Encoding; Shannon’s Encoding Algorithm; Shannon-Fano Algorithm; Discrete Communication Channel: – Noiseless Channel; Deterministic Channel; Binary Symmetric Channel; Rate of Information Transfer over Discrete Channel; Capacity of Discrete Memoryless Channel Continuous Channel: Shannon Hartley Theorem for channel capacity; Signal to Noise Ratio –Bandwidth Tradeoff (12)

Unit 3:- Bandpass Modulation and Demodulation techniques

BPSK, BFSK, ASK and DPSK generation and reception; Signal space diagram, PSD and Bandwidth of BPSK and BFSK systems; QPSK and MSK Transmitter and Receiver; Signal

space diagram, PSD and Bandwidth of QPSK and MSK; Probability of Error of ASK,BPSK and BFSK systems; Comparison of Digital modulation systems Coherent Detection: – Integrate and Dump Filter (SNR and Probability of Error); Optimum Filter (Transfer function and Probability of Error); Matched Filter (Impulse response and Probability of Error) (10)

**SECTION-B**

Unit 4:- Base Band Transmission

Base Band Binary PAM systems, Inter Symbol Interference, Base Band Pulse Shaping and Nyquist Criterion; Eye Diagram Correlative Coding: Duobinary Encoder with Pre-coder;

Modified Duobinary Encoder; Modified Duobinary Encoderwith Pre-coder Equalization: Need for equalization; Transversal Equalizer (Problems Expected); Preset Equalizer; Adaptive Equalizer,Clock and Carrier Synchronization. (8)

Unit 5:- Error Control Coding

Introduction to Error Control Coding; Types of Errors; Methods of Controlling Errors;

Linear Block Codes: Matrix Description of Linear Block codes, Hamming Distance; Hamming Weight; Minimum Hamming Distance; Hamming Codes; Encoder for Linear Block code; Syndrome Decoding; Syndrome Decoder for (n,k) Linear Block Code; Error Detection and Correction capability of Linear Block Codes (Derivation expected) Cyclic Codes: Properties of Cyclic Codes; Systematic and Non- Systematic generator Matrix, Parity Check Matrices for Cyclic Codes; Encoders for Cyclic Codes; Syndrome Decoding for Cyclic Codes Convolution Codes: Time Domain Approach and Transform domain approach for convolution code generation; Code Tree and Code Trellis for Convolution code (8)

Unit 6:- Multiple Access Schemes and Spread Spectrum

Communication Multiple Access schemes: Time Division Multiple Access, Frequency Division Multiple Access; Code Division Multiple Access; Space Division Multiple Access

Spread Spectrum Systems: Notion of Spread Spectrum; PN Sequence Generation (Problems Expected); Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS); Jamming Margin; Processing Gain;

Eb/No Ratio; Frequency Hopped Spread Spectrum; Slow and Fast frequency Hopping. (6)

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Shanmugam K.S. :”Digital & Analog Communication Systems”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996.

2. Lathi B. P. :”Modern Digital and Communication Systems”, Holt Rinchart and Winston Inc., New York, 1993.

3. Simon Haykin : “Digital Communication” , John Wiley and Sons, Pvt. Ltd., Singapore.

REFERENCE BOOKS :

1. Proakis J. K. :”Digital Communication”, Mc-Graw Hill Book Co., London (Second Edition)

2. Taub, Herbert, Schilling D.L : “Principles of Communication Systems”, Mc-Graw Hill International Book Co., Tokyo.

3. W.C.Y. Lee : “Mobile Cellular Telecommunications Systems”, Mc- Graw Hill International Editions, 1990

4. Glover and Grant : “Digital Communication”, Prentice Hall Publication.

6FEXT5/ 6FEXN5 (1) INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY

**SECTION-A**

Unit I : (8 Lectures)

Introduction to networking: the Internet reference model, layering and protocols, OSI and other models, Network types, network media, network topologies, connectivity devices, evolution of networking, types and range of wireless communication, wireless technologies

Unit II : (8 Lectures)

Wireless LAN, satellite communication, wireless application protocol (WAP), antennas, narrow-band and spread-spectrum technologies, cellular telephony, propagation, frequencies and

spectrum and personal communication system

Unit III : ( 8 Lectures )

Wireless Application Protocol model, WAP architecture component, Trends: technology and culture, 3G, wireless in local proximity, Bluetooth: design and principle of operation, transmitter characteristics, spurious emissions, baseband characteristics, physical channel, channel control, Bluetooth security, inter-operability requirements for blue-tooth as a WAP bearer

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV : ( 8 Lectures )

Cellular telephony, history of cellular telephony, design and principle of cellular operation, cellular telephony operation, analog cellular telephones, digital cellular telephones, digital

networks, personal communication systems, the third generation, recent events in cellular telephony

Unit V : (8 Lectures)

Wireless LAN: introduction, benefits of WLANs, design and principle of operation, WLAN configuration, micro-cells and roaming, types of WLANs, WLAN customer consideration,

wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11, 802.11b and 802.11a, selecting the WLAN, microwave LANs

Unit VI: ( 8 Lectures )

Communicating with a satellite, LEOs, MEOs, GEOs and HEOs systems, design and principle of operation of Global Positioning System (GPS); satellite, control and user segments, Differential GPS, geometric earth models and future of GPS

Text Book:

An Introduction to Wireless Technology by Garry S. Rogers and John Edwards, Pearson Education.

6FEXT5/ 6FEXN5 (2) ELECTRONIC TEST INSTRUMENTS: ANALOG AND DIGITAL

**SECTION-A**

Unit I : (8 Lectures)

Analog meters, digital meters, dc voltmeter, ac voltmeters, RF probes, ammeters, ac ammeters, ohm-meters, 4-wire ohm measurements, multi-meters, meter range, other multi-meter functions: continuity indicators, diode tests, frequency counters, minimum, maximum, average read-outs, capacitance and temperature measurements, specifications

Unit II : ( 8 Lectures )

Floating and grounded outputs, sine wave sources, imperfections in sine wave sources,: frequency accuracy, frequency stability, amplitude accuracy, distortion, spurious responses, close-in-sidebands , Function Generators: Arbitrary waveform generators, arbitrary waveforms, AM and FM modulation, bursts, Frequency Shift Keying, Frequency sweep, sync output, phase locking, pulse generators, RF signal generators

Unit III : ( 8 Lectures )

Oscilloscopes: the concept of oscilloscope, digital scope block diagram, sample rate, real time and repetitive sampling, triggering, acquisition/sweep control, vertical amplifier, vertical resolution, ac and dc coupling, bandwidth limit, X-Y display mode, High impedance inputs, 50 ohm inputs, digital acquisition and display techniques, specifications of oscilloscopes, mixed signal oscilloscope, oscilloscope probes, probe compensation, active probes, differential measurements, high voltage probes, current probes

SECTION-B

Unit IV : (8 Lectures)

Oscilloscope measurements, basic waveform measurements, voltage gain measurements, phase measurements, frequency measurements, digital signal measurements, frequency response measurements, square wave tests, linearity measurements, curve tracer measurement techniques, diode I-V and resistor I-V characteristics, amplitude modulation measurements, power measurements, FFT measurements, basic time domain reflectometry

Unit V : (8 Lectures)

Spectrum and network analyzers: spectrum analyzer, bank-offilters spectrum analyzers, FFT spectrum analyzers, wavemeters, resolution bandwidth, narrow-band and broadband

measurements, swept spectrum analyzers, spectrum analyzer measurements, Network Analyzers, distortion analyzers, RF power measurements, RF power meter,

Unit VI : ( 8 Lectures )

Logic Analyzers: logic probes, oscilloscope logic measurements, logic analyzers, timing analyzers, glitch detect, state analyzers, data formats, state displays, timing displays, microprocessor measurements, trigger events and sequencing, microprocessor program flow, logic analyzer probing, combined scope and logic analyzer, PC-hosted logic analyzers

Text Book:

Electronic Test Instruments: Analog and Digital by Robert A.

Witte, Second Edition, Pearson Education

Unit I : Comprehension over an unseen passage. Comprehension – A – word study :- Synonym, antonym, meanings, matching words, adjectives, adverbs, prefix and suffix, correct forms of

commonly misspelled words, understanding of the given passage. Comprehension – B – Structure study :-Simple and compound sentences, types of conjunctions, singular and plural, tenses and their effect on verb forms. Use of – not only – but also, if clause, since, may, can, could, would, too etc. Active and passive forms, negative and interrogative, punctuation and capitalization.

Unit II : Theoretical background – importance of communication, its process, model of communication its components & barriers. Verbal communication, its significance, types of written communication, organization of a text (Titles, summaries, headings, sequencing, signaling, cueing etc.), Important text factors (length of paragraph, sentences, words, clarification and text difficulty). Evaluation of written communication for its effectively and subject content. Non-verbal communication, types of graphics and pictorial devices.

Unit III : Specific formats for written communication like – business correspondence, formal reports, technical proposals, research papers and articles, advertising and graphics. Format for dayto- day written communication like applications, notices, minutes, quotations, orders, enquiries etc. Oral communications – Important objectives of interpersonal skills, (verbal and non-verbal), face to face communications, group discussion and personal interviews. methodology of conduction of meetings, seminars, symposia, conference and workshop.**BOOKS RECOMMENDED:**

1) Krishna Mohan, Meera Banerjee : Developing Communication Skills, MacMillan India Limited.

2) Chrissie Wright (Editor) : Handbook of Practical Communication Skills, Jaico Publishing House.

3) Raman Sharma “Technical Communication”, Oxford University Press..

4) F. Frank Candlin : General English for Technical Students, University of London Press Ltd.

## Final Year

ENTC
SEVENTH SEMISTER

7XT4 (1) VLSI DESIGN

7XT4 (2) COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

7XT4 (3) ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

7XT4(4) SATELLITE AND OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION

7XT4(5) AUDIO & VIDEO ENGINEERING

**SECTION-A**

Unit I: – Introduction to Communication Network Network Functions; Network Topology; Types of network: LAN, MAN, WAN, Basics of Circuit switching, packet switching, message switching and cell switching, Layered Architecture: Need for Protocol; Protocol & Protocol architecture model; OSI

Reference model; Overview of TCP/IP architecture (6)

Unit II: – Peer to Peer Protocols and Data Link control, Point to Point Protocol and service models; End to End requirements and Adaptation Function; End to End versus Hop by Hop

Flow Control: Need for flow control; Stop and Wait Flow Control; Sliding Window Flow Control; Stop and wait ARQ; Go-Back-N ARQ; Selective Repeat ARQ; Transmission efficiency of ARQ

protocols; HDLC Protocol (8)

Unit III: – Local Area Networks and Access Control Protocols, LAN Architecture; Medium Access Control (MAC) and Logical LinkControl (LLC) for LAN; Contention Techniques: CSMA, CSMA/

CD (IEEE 802.3)

Control Access Techniques: Token Bus (IEEE 802.4); Token Ring (IEEE 802.5); Polling; FDDI, Random Access Techniques: ALOHA; Slotted ALOHA; (10)

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: – Networking Devices, Routing Techniques and Traffic Control Protocols: Hubs; Switches; Bridges; Routers; Gateways; Routing Switches Routing Algorithms: Alternate routing in circuit switched network; Fixed Routing, Flooding, and Random Routing in Packet Switched networks Least Cost Algorithms:

Dijkstra’s Algorithm (Problems expected); Bellman Ford Algorithm (Problems expected) Traffic Control: Leaky Bucket algorithm; Token Bucket Algorithm (8)

Unit V: – Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay and ISDN ATM: – ATM Protocol Architecture; Concept of Virtual channel and Virtual path; ATM Cell; ATM Services

Frame Relay: – Protocol architecture ISDN: -Principles of ISDN; ISDN Architecture; ISDN Channels;

Broadband ISDN Functional Architecture (7)

Unit VI: – TCP/IP Protocol Overview of TCP/IP; IP Services; Internet Protocol (IPv4);

Classfull and Classless IP Addressing; Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP); IP Address Resolution protocol; Reverse Address Resolution Protocol; IPv4 versus IPv6; IP Datagram; Datagram Forwarding; TCP (Frame Format); UDP (Frame Format) (7)**TEXT BOOKS :**

1. W. Stallings : “Data and Computer Communications”, (Maxwell Macmillan)

2. Behrouz A Forouzan : “Data Communication and Networking” , (TMH)**REFERENCE BOOKS :**

1. D Bertsekas and R.G. Gallager: “Data Networks”, (2 e) , Pearson Ed., (PHI)

2. A. S. Tanenbaum : “Computer Networks”, PHI

3. UylessBlack : “Computer Networks”, (PHI)

4. Douglas E. Comer : “Computer Networks and Internets”, ( Pearson Education)

5. Gerd Kaiser, “ Local area network”, (TMH) 2nd Edition

6. Leon Garcia, “ Communication Network

.

**SECTION-A**

UNIT-I :An Introduction to uC 8051:Architecture of 8051, Signal description of 8051, Register set of 8051, Timer structure and their mode and I/O port structure. Bus standards : Serial RS 232, Parallel IEE-488 ( 8 Lectures)

UNIT-II: Instruction set of 8051, Addressing modes of 8051, Memory and I/O addressing by 8051, Assembly Language Programming using 8051. ( 8 Lectures)

UNIT-III: Study of ADC 0809, DAC 0808 and its interfacing with 8051, Interfacing of Sensors, Measurement of Temperature, Speed and Resistance. ( 8 Lectures)

**SECTION-B**

UNIT-IV: Interfacing LCD &Keyboard with 8051., Relays and Optoisolators, Stepper Motor interfacing, DC motor interfacing and PWM with 8051.

UNIT-V :Serial port programming in assembly: Basics of serial communication, 8051 connection to RS232C, 8051 Serial port programming in assembly. RTC interfacing and Programming :

DS 12887 RTC interfacing, Programming, Alarm, SQW, and IRQ features of DS 12887 Chip. (10 )

UNIT-VI :8051 programming in C : Data types and time delay in 8051 C, IO programming in 8051 C, Logic operations in 8051 C, Data conversion programs in 8051 C, Accessing code ROM space in

8051 C, Data serialization using 8051 C.**TEXT BOOKS :**

1. M. A. Mazidi, J. G. Mazidi and R. D. McKinley : “The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems using Assembly and C”,Pearson Education (2nd Ed.)

2. K. J. Ayala : “The 8051 Microcontroller”, Penram Int. Pubs., 1996

REFERENCE BOOKS :

1. Using the MCS-51 Microcontroller by Han- Way Huang, Oxford University Press

2. National Semiconductor : Data Acquisition Linear Devices Data Book.

3. Embedded Microcontrollers and Processors:-Volume-I-Intel

4. Intel Peripheral Devices Data Book.

**SECTION-A**

UNIT-I :Introduction to DSP, Frequency domain description of signals & systems, Discrete time sequences systems: Linearity, causal, Time invariant system, Stability criteria, Convolution unit sample

response. (10)

UNIT-II: Z- transform: complex Z-plane, ROC determination of filter coefficients and its properties, Solution of difference equations using Z-transform, inverse Z-transform. (12)

UNIT-III: Introduction to Fourier transform of discrete time signal and its properties. Inverse Fourier transforms DFT and its properties, Circular convolution, linear convolution from DFT, FFT:

Decimation in time and frequency radix 2 algorithm. (10)**SECTION-B**

UNIT-IV: Filter Structures: Direct form I, Direct form II, Cascade and parallel structure for IIR and FIR Filter, Frequency sampling structures for F.I.R. filter. FIR filter design: Design by Pole Zero Placements

and Windowing method: Rectangular, Triangular, Blackman window and Kaiser window. (8)

UNIT-V: Methods to convert analog filter into IIR digital: Mapping of differential equation, Impulse invariant, bilinear transformation, and Matched Z transformation. Design of Analog filter:

Specification and formulae to decide to filter order cut of frequency and transfer function of Butterworth filter and Chebyshev filter. (8)

UNIT-VI: Multi rate DSP, Introductory concept of multi rate signal processing, Design of Practical sampler, Rate converters, Decimators and Interpolator, Filter Bank application and examples. Overview and architecture of DSP processor TMS320C54XX. (8 )**TEXT BOOKS :**

1. Oppenheim & Schafer: Discrete time Processing (PHI)

2. Proakis&Manolakis D.G. : Digital Signal Processing (PHI)

3. Mitra S.K. : Digital Signal Processing (TMH)

REFERENCE BOOKS :

1. Roman Kuc : Digital Signal Processing (MGH)

2. Ifeacher E.C., Jervis B. W. : Digital Signal Processing (Addison Wesley)

3. P. P. Vaidyanathan : DSP and Multirate Systems (PHI)

4. Rabiner and Chrocherie :Multirate DSP (PHI)

5. Avtar Singh, S Shrinivasan : DSP implementation using DSP microprocessor with example From TMS320C54XX. Brooks colepublisher 2003.

7XT4 (1) VLSI DESIGN

**SECTION-A**

Unit I :Digital Design Fundamentals: Review of techniques of using a truth table, canonical forms to develop the AND/OR or OR/ AND combinational circuit models, minimization techniques,

Hazards and Hazard free circuits. Difference between combinational and sequential circuits.General model of sequential machine, timing and triggering considerations.

Unit II :Basic HDL Constructs: VLSI Design flow, Overview of different modeling styles in VHDL, Data types and data objects in VHDL,Dataflow Modeling, Behavioral Modeling, using VHDL for

combinational Circuits and sequential Circuits.

Unit III :Hardware Description Language: Structural Modeling, Subprograms, Packages and Libraries, Generics, Configurations, attributes. Comparison of various Hardware Description Languages.

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV :Programmable Logic Devices: Introduction to CPLDs: Function block architecture, input/output block, switch matrix, Study of architecture of CPLDs of Altera /Xilinx. Introduction to FPGAs: Configurable logic block, input/output block and interconnect, Study of architecture of FPGAs of Xilinx /Altera.

Unit V: CMOS Circuits: Different logic families, MOS Transistor, CMOS as an inverter, propagation delay, power consumption/ dissipation issues, simple circuits using CMOS.

Unit VI: CMOS Processing & Digital Circuit Verification: CMOS Fabrication: Different steps of fabrication, CMOS p-well, n-Well and twin tub processes, CMOS Layout and Design rules. Simple

Test Bench, Simulation and Synthesis issues, case study of ALU/ Sequence Detector.**TEXT BOOKS:**

1) Neil H.Weste and Kamran Eshraghian, “Principles of CMOS VLSI design”. Pearson

2) J Bhasker,” VHDL Primer”. Addison Wesley

3) Douglas Perry,” VHDL” Tata McGraw HILL

4) William I. Fletcher “An Engineering approach to Digital Design”, Prentice Hall India.**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1) Stephen Brown and ZvonkoVranesic, “Fundamentals of Digital Logic with VHDL Design”. Tata McGRAW HILL

2) Wayne Wolf: “VLSI Technology”

3) VLSI Test Principles and Architectures by LaungTerng Wang, Elsevier

7XT4 (2) COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

**SECTION-A**

UNIT I :Organization and architecture, structure and function, Computer evolution and performance: Brief history of computer, designing for performance , computer components, computer function ,

bus interconnection, PCI

UNIT II :External devices, I/O modules, I/O Channels and IOPs, SCSI and firewire interfaces, operating system overview, memory management, swapping, partitioning , paging , virtual memory.

UNIT III : ALU: Machine instruction characteristics , operand types, operation types, Addressing modes, instruction formats, CPU structure, processor organization register organization, instruction cycle, instruction pipelining.

SECTION-B

UNIT IV :RISC machine, instruction execution characteristics, register file concept, compiler based register optimization , RISC architecture, RISC pipelining, RISC vs CISC, case study of power PC 620.

UNIT V :Control unit operation: Micro operation, control of processor Hardwired implementation, micro program control : Concepts, microinstructions sequencing and execution, application of

microprogramming.

UNIT VI :Multiple processor organizations, symmetric multiprocessors, Mainframe SMP, Cache coherence and MESI protocol, clusters. Non uniform memory access. Vector computation**TEXT BOOKS:**

1) William Stallings “Computer organization and architecture”. 6/e (Pearson education)

2) A.S. Tanenbaum“ Structured computer organization” 4/e McGraw Hill (ISE)**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1) C. Hamacher, R. Zaky Computer Organization. 5/e McGraw Hill ( ISE)

2) J.P. Hayes Computer architecture and organization. 4/e McGraw Hill (ISE)

3) M. Mano &Kime Logic & Computer design fundamentals, 2/e (Pearsoneducation)

7XT4 (3) ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

**SECTION-A**

Unit I: Artificial Intelligence: History and Applications, definitions, fundamental issues, challenges, growth of AI, current trends in applied AI

Unit II: Knowledge Representation: Reasoning, Issues, and Acquisition, propositional calculus, predicate calculus, rule-based knowledge representation, basic knowledge representation issues

Unit III: Heuristic Search, search as a problem-solving technique, techniques for heuristic search, hill climbing heuristic, best-first search, evaluation of heuristic functions, State space search, strategies, implementation of graph search, depth-first search, breadth first search, representation of reasoning with predicate calculus using state space, application of search technique in game playing and planning

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: Expert Systems, features, characteristics, development of ES technology, architecture, goals, basic activities, advantages, difference between ES and conventional methods, stages in the

development of ES, ES tools, difficulties in developing ES, applications of expert systems

Unit V: Artificial Neural Networks, introduction, supervised learning, feed-forward neural networks, recurrent neural networks, Elman backpropagation neural network, Hopfield neural network,

features of artificial neural networks, functional link neural network, Fuzzy systems, foundations, crisp set to fuzzy set, representing fuzzy elements, basic terms and operations, properties of fuzzy sets, fuzzy measures, measures of fuzziness, fuzzification, fuzziness and probability theory, membership function shape analysis, defuzzification methods, fuzzy logic in

control and decision making applications, hardware realization

of the analog fuzzy controller

Unit VI: Genetic Algorithms, procedures of GA, representations, initialization and selection, genetic operators, mutation, natural inheritance operators, logic behind GA, GA applications, applicability of Gas, evolutionary programming, working of evolutionary programming, swarm intelligent systems, background of ant intelligent systems, ant colony paradigm, applications of ant colony intelligence in static and dynamic combinatorial optimization problems, particle swarm intelligent systems, engineering applications of particle swarm intelligent systems**TEXT BOOK:**

Artificial Intelligence and Intelligent Systems, Padhy, Oxford Univ Press**REFERENCE BOOK:**

Artificial Intelligence by Rich and Knight, McGraw-Hill

7XT4(4) SATELLITE AND OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION

**SECTION-AUNIT I:- INTRODUCTION**

Satellite frequency bands, Satellite types-LEO, MEO, GEO, HEO, Kepler’s laws, Satellite orbits, Geo-stationary Satellite. Orbital Aspects of Satellite Communication: Orbital period and velocity, Effect of orbital inclination, Azimuth and Elevation, Converge angle and Slant range, Orbit determination, Orbital effect in communication system performance.

UNIT II:- SATELLITE CHANNELS

Electromagnetic field Propagation, Antennas, Atmospheric losses, Receiver noise, Carrier to noise ratio, Satellite system link model: Uplink, Downlink, Cross link, Transponder, Satellite system parameters, Satellite link analysis, Frequency reuse and depolarization.

UNIT III:- SATELLITE SERVICES

Very Small Aperture Satellite (VSAT): Overview of VSAT system, Network architecture, Access control protocols, Signal format ,Modulation coding and interference issues, VSAT antennas,

Transmitter and Receiver, Link analysis for VSAT network.Satellite Navigation and Global Positioning System (GPS): Radio and Satellite navigation, Position, Location in GPS, GPS receivers and codes, GPS navigation message and signal levels, Timing accuracy, GPS receiver operation, Differential GPS .

**SECTION-B**

UNIT IV: OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDE AND TRANSMISSION

CHARACTRISTICS

Ray Theory of Optical Fiber, Total internal reflection, Snell’s law, Acceptance Angles, Numerical Aperture (NA), Theory of Circular Waveguide, Modes in Optical Fiber, Single mode and Multimode

Optical Fiber, Power flow.Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fiber: Attenuation,

Absorption losses, Scattering losses, Bending losses, Dispersion, Intermodal and Intramodal Dispersion.

UNIT V:- OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS

Optical Sources: Optical Emission from Semiconductor, LED, Power, Efficiency, Double hetero junction LED, Basic concept of LASER, Semiconductor injection LASER, Optical Detectors: Optical detection principle, Absorption quantum efficiency, Responsivity, PIN Photodiode, Avalanche Photodiode, Phototransistor and Photoconductive Detector.

UNIT VI:- OPTICAL ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

Optical Transmitter, Receiver, Digital system planning consideration, Power budgeting, Coherent and Non-coherent system, Modulation and Demodulation schemes, Wavelength multiplexing, Optical switches,**TEXT BOOKS:-**

1) Gagliardi Robert M.: “Satellite Communication”, CBS Publication and Distributers, New Delhi

2) Senior J.M.: “Optical Fiber communication and Application”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.**REFERNCE BOOKS:-**

1) Gowar: “Optical Communication System”, Prentice Hall.

2) R. P. Khare: “Fiber Optics and OptoElectronics”, Oxford University Press, First Edition.

3) G. Keiser: “Optical Fiber Communication”, McGraw Hill International Book Co. New York.

4) Pratt Timothy and Bostian W. Charles: “Satellite Communication”, Willey International Publication, New York.

7XT4(5) AUDIO & VIDEO ENGINEERING

**SECTION-A**

Unit I : Principle of disc recording, principle of disc reproduction, Block diagram of disc reproduction system, Coarse-grooves and micro grooves, construction of cutter stylus, Play back needles,

cartridges of pick up units, principle of magnetic recording and reproduction, Recorded wavelength, Gap-width and tape speed, need for biasing DC And & AC biasing, Parts of tape recorder, tape transport mechanism advantages and disadvantages of tape recording, Block diagram tape recording and reproducing system Wow and flutter distortions, Rumble, Hissing noise, Types of optical recording of sound, methods of optical recording of sound on films

Unit II : Multimedia Definition, Elements of multimedia system, need of multimedia audio application, audio capture, compression, standards Video applications, video capture Television, compression, standards, proprietary compression, Introduction to video system, sound and picture transmission, scanning process, camera pickup devices, camcorder, video signal, aspect ratio, horizontal and vertical resolution, video bandwidth and interlaced scanning composite video signal for monochrome

TV video signal standards, sound and video modulation, VSB transmission and reception (CCIR – B standards), composite color signals, compatibility TV transmitter block diagrams.

Unit III: Television: Scanning, Blanking and synchronisation, Picture signal – composite video signal-Vestigial sideband transmission-Principle of CCD Camera – Monochrome picture tube-Monochrome TV receivers- RF tuner ,VHF tuner- Video amplifier, IF section, Vestigial sideband correction- Video detectors

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV :Sound signal separation, AGC, sync separation, horizontal and vertical deflection circuits, EHT generation. Colour TV system: Principle of colour signal transmission and reception, PAL, NTSC, SECAM (block schematic description), Picture tube – delta gun.

Unit V :Digital TV: Digitized Video, Source coding of Digitized Video – Compression of Frames – DCT based – (JPEG), Compression of Moving Pictures (MPEG). Basic blocks of MPEG2 and MPEG4.

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) – Modulation: QAM – (DVBS, DVB-C)

Unit VI: OFDM for Terrestrial Digital TV (DVB –T). Reception of Digital TV Signals (Cable, Satellite and terrestrial). Digital TV over IP, Digital terrestrial TV for mobile. Display Technologies – basic

working of Plasma, LCD and LED Displays.**TEXT BOOKS :**

1. Herve Benoit, Digital Television Satellite, Cable, Terrestrial, IPTV, Mobile TV in the DVB Framework, 3/e, Focal Press, Elsevier, 2008

2. ShlomoOvadia: Broadband Cable TV Access Networks, PH-PTR, 2001

3. Mark E Long: ¯The Digital Satellite TV Hand Book, Butterworth- Heinemann.

4. K.R.Rao, J.O.Hwang, Techniques and standards for Image, Video and Audio coding, Prentice Hall,1996

5. John Arnold, Michael Frater, Mark Pickering, Digital Television Technology and Standards, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2007

6. Robert L. Hartwig, Basic TV Technology: Digital and Analog, 4/e, Focal Press, Elsevier, 2005**REFERENCE BOOKS :**

1. Multimedia in Practice Technology and Applications By Judith Jeffcoate (PHI)

2. Audio-Video Engineering By Gupta

3. Television and Video Engineering ByA.M.Dhake

4. R.R. Gulati: Monochrome and Colour Television. New Age international, 2008.

5. Basic Television and Video Systems ByBernordGrob

6. Communication Electronics ByFrenzel

7. Electronic Communication Systems By George Kennedy

## EIGHTH SEMESTER

8XT4(1) BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

8XT4(2) DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

8XT4 (3) ARM SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN

8XT4 (4) EMBEDDED AND REAL TIME SYSTEM

8XT4(5) SMART SENSORS

**SECTION-A**

Unit I: MICROWAVE TUBES

Limitation of Conventional devices at high frequency, Microwave Tubes: Two cavity, Multicavity klystron, and reflex klystron, Cylindrical Cavity Magnetron, TWT & Backward Wave Oscillator (8)

Unit II: Semiconductor microwave Devices:

Gunn diode: RWH theory, Gunn domain, modes of Gunn oscillation, Negative resistance amplifier, Parametric amplifiers: operation & types, Principle of operation of IMPATT, TRAPATT diodes, & MASER. (8)

Unit III: Transmission of Microwaves:

Waveguides: Rectangular Wave guide, Circular Waveguide, Introduction to Parallel Microstriplines: Microstrip line characteristics impedance & losses (10)

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: Microwave Resonator:

Basic Resonant circuits RLC, transmission line resonators, Cavity resonators: rectangular and circular cavities, resonant frequency, and quality factor of resonators. (8)

Unit V: Microwave Components:

Microwave passive components, terminator, Attenuator, phase shifter, Scattering matrix formulation, Two hole directionalcoupler, E-plane tee, H-plane tee, Magic tee. Microwavepropagation in ferrites, devices employing Faraday rotation: Isolator, Gyrator & Circulator. (8)

Unit VI: Microwave Measurements:

Frequency Measurements, Power Measurements, Attenuation Measurements, VSWR Measurements, Impedance Measurements, insertion Loss Measurements, Dielectric constant Measurements. (8)**TEXT BOOKS :**

1. Liao, Samuel Y. : “Microwave devices& circuits”, Tata Mc-Graw Hill Co. Ltd., New Delhi

2. Collin, Robert E. : “Foundations for Microwave Engineering”, Mc- Graw Hill, New York.**REFERENCE BOOKS :-**

1. Kennedy G. :”Electronics Communication Systems”, Tata Mc-GrawHill Book Co., New Delhi..

2. K.C. Gupta : “Microwave Engineering”, (New Age)

3. Reich, Scolnik, Ordung, Krangs : “Microwave Principles”, PHI

5. M.L. Sisodiya and G.S. Raghuwanshi : “Microwave Circuits and Passive devices”, (WEL)

6. Mathew M. Radmanesh : RF and Microwave Electronics – Illustrated.

**SECTION-A**

UNIT-I : Design of regulated power supply using transistor, design of DC amplifier, comparator, window detectors, scaling and summing amplifier using IC 741 / IC 324 or equivalent.

UNIT-II :Design of waveform generator using IC 741, IC 8038, IC 566. Design of sweep generator, voltage controlled oscillator. Design of first and second order filters, design of notch filter.

UNIT-III :Design of instrumentation amplifier, Temperature controller / indicator using thermocouple, resistance thermal detector , thermo sensors AD590, LM35

**SECTION-B**

UNIT-IV :Introduction to CMOS / VLSI circuits, MOS Transistor switch, Realization of universal gates and compound gates using MOS transistors, basic physical design of simple logic gates.

UNIT-V :VHDL : Design flow, EDA tools, code structures, data types, operators and attributes. Signals & Variables, concurrent code, sequential code, packages and components, configuration, Introduction to VERILOG.

UNIT-VI: Design of combinational blocks such as multi-bit adders, ALU, MUX, DEMUX , encoders, decoders, Design of sequential circuits, asynchronous and synchronous design issues, state machine modeling (Moore and Mealy machines).**TEXT BOOKS :**

1. R.A. Gayakwad : “OP-AMP and Linear Integrated Circuits”

2. VolneiPedroni, “ Circuit Design with VHDL”, PHI , 2005 edition**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1. Sergio Franco : Design with Linear Integrated Circuits &Opamps.

2. Douglas L. Perry : VHDL (3rd Ed.) , McGraw Hill.

3. Brown &Vranesic : “Digital Logic Design using VHDL”, TMH

4. Paul Horowitz-W.Hill:”The art of Electronics” (Cambridge publications)

5. Neil Weste- K. Eshraghian :Principles of CMOS/VLSI design (Pearson Education)

6. J. Bhaskar “VHDL Primer” (Pearson Education)

**SECTION-A**

Unit-I : CELLULAR FUNDAMENTALS

Evolution of cellular mobile system (1G, 2G, 3G) A basic cellularsystem, cell shape, concept of frequency reuse, cellular system architecture, , operation of cellular systems, Mobility

Management: Hand off techniques , Types of hand off, Radio link transfer ,roaming management. (8)

Unit II : CELLULAR RADIO SYSTEM DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS

Frequency managements: Cellular system spectrum, frequency assignment, channel assignment strategies, co-channel and nonco- channel interference, cellular system capacity, improving coverage and capacity in cellular system. (9)

Unit III : MOBILE RADIO PROPAGATION MECHANISM

Radio propagation mechanism, multipath propagation, fading, doppler shift, fast and slow fading, control of fading in mobile systems. (8)

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV : GSM SYSTEM

GSM system architecture, radio subsystem, channel types, frame structure, GSM Signaling Protocols, call processing in GSM, handovers in GSM, signal processing in GSM, data oriented CDPD network, Specification of HCSD,GPRS, EDGE. (9)

Unit V : CDMA SYSTEM

Frequency and channel specification, physical and logical channels of IS-95,call processing in IS-95, soft hand off and power control in CDMA. Cell loading, cell radius, Reverse &Forward link cell size. (9)

Unit VI : MOBILE ADHOC NETWORKS,WLAN & WMAN

Bluetooth: Bluetooth enable devices network, Bluetooth protocol, layers, Zigbee Architecture. Specifications Wireless LAN: Wi-Fi architecture and protocol, Wireless MAN: Wi-MAX architecture and protocol. (9)**TEXT BOOKS :**

1) Theodore S. Rappaport : “Wireless Communications : Principles &Practice”, Second edition, Pearson Education (2002)

2) Vijay K. Garg :”Wireless network Evolution 2G to 3G” , Pearson Education.

3) K. Pahlavan and P. Krishnamurthy : “Principles of Wireless Networks”, Pearson Education Asia Publication (2002)**REFERENCE BOOKS :**

1) William Stallings : “Wireless Communications and Networks” Pearson Education Asia Publication (2002)

2) JochenSchiller : “Mobile Communications”, Pearson Education Asia Publication (2002)

3) Andy Dornam : “The Essential Guide to Wireless Communication Applications”, Pearson Education Asia Publication.

4) UpenaDalal “Wireless communication”, Oxford University Press

5) William CY Lee : “Mobile Cellular Telecommunications”(second edition) McGraw Hill Inc.

8XT4(1) BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

**SECTION-A**

UNIT-I: INTRODUCTION TO BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

Physiological system of heart, Man instrument system, Sources of bioelectric potentials, Different bioelectric signals like ECG, EMG and EEG, Biopotential Electrode theory, Basic electrode,

Electrodes for EEG, ECG, EMG, Biochemical electrodes. Skin contact Theory : skin contact impedance measurement of skin contact impedance, motion artifacts, nearest equation Nernst Equation . (9)

UNIT-II : BIOMEDICAL RECORDER AND MEASUREMENT

Biomedical recorders for EEG, ECG, EMG, Blood pressure variation as a function of time, relationship of heart sounds to a function of the cardio vascular system, Measurement of Blood Pressure (Direct & Indirect), Blood flow, Heart sound. (8 )

UNIT-III : MEDICAL IMAGING SYSTEM

Instrumentation for diagnostics X-ray , X- ray basics properties , X-ray machine , Special imaging technique.

Ultrasonic imaging system: Physics of Ultrasound, Biological effect of ultrasound. Ultrasonic A-scan, M-scan, B-scan, Realtimeultrasonic imaging systems. (8 )

**SECTION-B**

UNIT-IV : THERAPEUTIC EQUIPMENTS

Need of Physiological and electrotherapy equipments. Cardiac pacemaker machine, Cardiac Defibrillators, Nerve and Muscle stimulators.Diathermy : short wave, microwave, ultrasonic. (8)

UNIT-V : PATIENT CARE AND MONITORING AND SAFETY

System concepts, Bedside patient monitors, central monitors, Average reading heart monitor, Intensive care monitoring, Ambulatory monitoring. Biotelemetry: Single channel and Multichannel bio-telemetry, telephonic data transmission.

PATIENT SAFETY: Electric shock hazards, leakage current. Types of Leakage current, measurement of leakage current, methods of reducing leakage current, precautions to minimize electric shock hazards. Telemedicine. (9)

UNIT-VI : COMPUTERS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) Computerized Aided ECG analysis Computerized patient monitoring system. Computerized Catheterization. (8)**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Khandpur R.S. : “Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation”, Tata Mc-Graw Hill, New Delhi.

2. Cromwell L. &Weibell F.J. :“Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurement”, Prentice Hall of India.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Dr. Lele R.D. : “Computer Applications of Medicine”, Tata Mc- GrawHill, New Delhi.

2. Webstar J.G. : “Medical Instrumentation”, IIIed., John Wiley & Sons.

3. Carr and Brown : Biomedical Equipment Technology.

8XT4(2) DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

**SECTION-A**

UNIT-I : Introduction to digital image processing, Digital Image Fundamental, Elements of Visual Perception, Simple Image Model, Sampling and Quantization, Basic Relationships between

Pixel Imaging Geometry, Gray scale image representation. (8 )

UNIT-II :Image Transforms: Introduction to the Fourier Transform, DFT, Properties of Two Dimensional Fourier Transform, FFT, Hadamard, Harr, DCT, Slant Transform. (8 )

UNIT-III :Image Enhancement : Basic Techniques, Enhancement by point processing, Spatial Filtering, Enhancement in Frequency domain, histogram based processing, homomorphic filtering. (8 )

**SECTION-B**

UNIT-IV :Image Restoration: Degradation model, Diagonalisation concept, Algebraic approach to Restoration. Inverse filtering, Weiner (CNS) filtering Restoration in Spatial domain, Basic

morphological concept, morphological principles, binary morphology, Basic concepts of erosion and dilation. (9 )

UNIT-V : Image Compression: Fundamentals, Image compression models, Elements of Information theory, Lossy and predictive methods, vector quantization, runlength coding, Hauff coding, and

lossless compression, compression standards. (9 )

UNIT-VI :Image Segmentation : Detection of discontinuities, Edge Linking and boundary detection, Thresholding, Regional oriented Segmentation. (8 )**TEXT BOOKS :**

1) Gonzalez and Woods: “Digital Image Processing”, Addison / Wesley.

2) Milan Sonka, Vaclav Hlavac, Roger Boyle : Image processing Analysis and Machine Vision” , Book / Cole 2nd Edition.**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1) A. K. Jain : “Digital Image Processing”, PHI

2) William K. Pratt : “Digital Image Processing”, 3rd ed. , John Wiley and Sons Publications.

8XT4 (3) ARM SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN

**SECTION-A**

Unit I: Introduction to Processor Design: Processor architecture and organization Abstraction in hardware design MUO, a simple processor Instruction set design, Processor design trade-offs, The Reduced Instruction Set, Computer Design for low power consumption.

Unit II: The ARM Architecture: The Acorn RISC Machine Architectural inheritance The ARM programmer’s model ARM development tools.

Unit III: ARM Assembly Language Programming: Data processing instructions, Data transfer instructions, Control flow instructions, writing simple assembly language programs.

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: ARM Organization and Implementation:3-stage pipeline ARM organization, 5-stage pipeline ARM organization , ARM instruction execution, ARM implementation ,The ARM coprocessor interface.

Unit V : The ARM Instruction Set -1:Introduction, Exceptions, Conditional execution Branch and Branch with Link (B, BL) Branch, Branch with Link and exchange (BX, BLX) Software Interrupt (SWI) Data processing instructions, multiply instructions, Count leading zeros (CLZ – architecture v5T only)

Single word and unsigned byte data transfer instructions ,Halfwordand signed byte data transfer instructions.

Unit VI : The ARM Instruction Set -2:Multiple register transfer instructions, Swap memory and register instructions (SWP), Status register to general register transfer instructions, General register to status register transfer instructions, Coprocessor instructions, Coprocessor data operations, Coprocessor data

transfers, Coprocessor register transfers, Breakpoint instruction (BRK – architecture V5T only) ,Unused instruction, space Memory faults ,ARM architecture variants.**TEXT BOOK:**

ARM SYSTEM ON-CHIP ARCHITECTURE, Steve Furber, Second Edition, Pearson**REFERENCE BOOKS :**

1. ARM System Developer’s Guide, Elsevier

2. Co-Verification of Hardware and Software for ARM SoC Design by Jason Andrews. Elsevier

8XT4 (4) EMBEDDED AND REAL TIME SYSTEM

**SECTION-A**

Unit I :Introduction to an embedded systems design: Introduction to Embedded system, Embedded System Project Management, ESD and Co-design issues in System development Process, Design

cycle in the development phase for an embedded system, Use of target system or its emulator and In-circuit emulator, Use of software tools for development of an ES.

Unit II :RTOS & its overview 1: Real Time Operating System: Task and Task States, tasks and data, semaphores and shared Data Operating system Unit III : RTOS & its overview 2: Services-

Message queues-Timer Function-Events-Memory Management, Interrupt Routines in an RTOS environment, basic design Using RTOS

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: Microcontroller: Role of processor selection in Embedded System (Microprocessor V/s Micro-controller), ARMMicrocontroller, Instruction set architecture, THUMBinstructions, Exceptions in ARM, Programming examples, PIC Microcontroller: Architecture, basic assembly language programming concepts, Instruction set

Unit V :Embedded system development: Embedded system evolution trends Round – Robin, robin with Interrupts, function-One Scheduling Architecture, Algorithms Introduction to assembler, compiler-cross compilers, Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Object Oriented Interfacing, Recursion, Debugging strategies, Simulators

Unit VI :Networks for Embedded Systems: The I2C Bus, The CAN bus, SHARC link Ports, Ethernet, Myrinet, Internet, and Introduction to Bluetooth: Specification, Core Protocol, and Cable replacement protocol, IEEE 11491 (JTAG) Testability: Boundary Scan Architecture**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Embedded System Design by SantanuChattopadhyay, pHI

2. Embedded Systems by Raj Kamal, TMH

3 J B Peatman, Design with PIC Microcontrollers, Prentice Hall**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1. Embedded Systems Architecture by Tammy Noergaard, Elsevier

2. Embedded System Design by Frank Vahid, Tony Givargis,”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc

3. Real-time systems & software by Alan C Shaw, John Wiley & sons, Inc

4. Embedded System Design by Peter Marwedel, Kluwer Academic Pub

8XT4(5) SMART SENSORS

**SECTION-A**

Unit I: Smart Sensor and the Nature of Semiconductor Sensor Output: Mechanical-Electronic Transitions in Sensing, Nature of Sensors, Integration of Micromachining and Microelectronics, Sensor Output Characteristics, Wheatstone bridge, Piezoresistivity in Silicon, Semiconductor Sensor Definitions,

Static versus Dynamic Operation, Noise/Interference Aspects.

Unit II: Sensing Technologies: Capacitive Sensing, Piezoelectric Sensing, Hall Effect, Chemical sensors, Improving Sensor Characteristics, Digital Output Sensors, Incremental Optical Encoders, Digital Techniques, Low-Power, Low-Voltage Sensors, combined Solution: Micromachining and Microelectronics.

Unit III: Getting Sensor Information into the MCU : Amplification and Signal Conditioning, Instrumentation Amplifiers, Switched- Capacitor Amplifier , Barometer Application Circuit , 4- to 20-mA

Signal Transmitter , Inherent Power-Supply Rejection, Separate Versus Integrated Signal Conditioning , Integrated Passive D Converters , Performance of A/D Converters , Implications of A/D Accuracy and Errors.

**SECTION-B**

Unit IV: MCUs/DSPs to Increase Sensor IQ : MCU Control , MCUs for Sensor Interface Peripherals ,Memory , Input/Output , Onboard A/D Conversion , Power-Saving Capability , Local Voltage or

Current Regulation , Modular MCU Design , DSP Control , Algorithms Versus Lookup Tables , Techniques and Systems Considerations , Linearization , PWM Control , Autozero and

Autorange, Diagnostics , Reducing Electromagnetic Compatibility and Radio Frequency Interference , Indirect (Computed, Not Sensed) Versus Direct Sensing , Software, Tools, and Support , Sensor Integration .

Unit V: Control Techniques : Programmable Logic Controllers , Open Versus Closed-Loop Systems, PID Control , State Machines, Fuzzy Logic , Neural Networks , Combined Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks ,Adaptive Control ,Observers for Sensing, Other Control Areas , RISC Versus CISC , Combined CISC, RISC, and DSP , The Impact of Artificial Intelligence .

Unit VI: Transceivers, Transponders, and Telemetry : The RF Spectrum, Spread Spectrum, Wireless Data and Communications, WirelessLocal Area Networks, FAX/ Modems, Wireless Zone Sensing,Optical Signal Transmission, RF Sensing Surface Acoustical Wave Devices, Radar, Global Positioning System, Remote Emissions Sensing, Remote Keyless Entry, Intelligent Transportation System, RF-ID , Other Remote SensingMeasuring RF Signal Strength, Telemetry, RF MEMS.

**TEXTBOOK:**

Understanding Smart Sensors, Randy Frank, 2e, Artech House